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Doktorský seminář

18.2.2022
11:00

Elli Papanikolaou (KFI ZČU)

How do we write history? Shaping the history of science

The main purpose of this presentation is to analyze the methodologies used by historians of science in order to “write” history. Based on historical works and the opinions of specific historians, such as John Henry, we are going to explain and compare all the methods used by historians focusing, especially, on comparative history. As the comparative history, nowadays, is a more preferable method than the others. Thus, through specific historical examples given by Henry, we will explain why comparative history is considered a better methodology and will try to answer three key questions that historians usually pose: “What do the different meanings of some terms in different places and times mean for a historian?", “What do the conceptual shifts mean for the sciences themselves?", and “What kind of changes occurs when the methods by which we explain natural world change?” 

25.2.2022
11:00
Mgr. Mgr. Iveta Fajnerová, PhD. (NUDZ)

Virtual reality in mental healthcare: history and present

The history of virtual reality (VR) began in the 1970s, and its beginnings can be dated mainly by technical advances related to computer graphics and the creation of the first glasses for simulated reality. VR technology advances were very early discovered and used by psychologists to create simulated situations for phobic individuals and this trend goes hand in hand with advances in VR technology. Today is VR used as a valuable tool in the treatment of various mental illnesses. The presentation will provide an overview of the current use of VR in the field of medicine with an emphasis on psychiatry and mental health care. In particular, we will imagine the use of virtual simulations in the exposure therapy of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, addictions, eating disorders, as well as the application of various simulations in provoking or mimicking the symptoms of other mental disorders. We will also mention the application of VR technology in neurorehabilitation and cognitive training. Despite the growing realism and perfection of the virtual simulations, the VR still has its limitations. Among the main ones is the use of virtual characters, which often do not appear or behave "real" as their design is costly and time consuming. However, it is the social context that forms a key part of many simulations used in the therapy of mental illness. During the lecture you will see examples of various therapeutic games with a social theme and related pitfalls.

11.3.2022 11:00

Mgr. Jan Čížek, PhD. (OU)

Mosaic Physics: An Early Modern alternative to Peripatetic natural philosophy?

 My lecture will focus on a remarkable Early Modern phenomenon – the so-called Mosaic Physics. Following the Protestant imperative to take the Bible literally, the representatives of this movement (e.g. Lambert Daneau, Otto Casmann, Kort Aslakssøn) tried to establish the natural philosophy, or physics, entirely on the first two chapters of The Book of Genesis attributed to Moses. Besides their understanding and definition of the Mosaic physics, I will analyze their conception of the creation (creatio ex nihilo; the six days of creation) and cosmology (principles and elements; structure of the heavens). Since the Mosaic natural philosophers believed that biblical literalism would surpass and eventually eliminate Aristotle and all pagan authorities from the area of natural philosophy, I will discuss the success of their methodology as well as the actual relation of their writings to Aristotelianism – that, I will argue, was not as simple as they, often clamorously, presented. 

18.3.2022
11:00

Mgr. Jakub Mihálik, PhD. (FLÚ AV ČR)

Consciousness & Acquaintance: Natural Allies?

According to the ‘objection from intimacy’, representationalism fails to make sense of the intimate, immediate nature of ‘inner awareness’, i.e. the special awareness that renders some of our mental states phenomenally conscious. The representationalist approach implies that one’s access to mental contents is mediated by representations, hence the contents could be misrepresented, which rules out intimacy. To address this objection, Levine, Hellie, Chalmers and others have construed inner awareness in terms of Russellian acquaintance, i.e. a direct, non-conceptual and substantive cognitive relation between a subject and her conscious contents. According to a common critique, however, the acquaintance-based model rules out naturalisability of consciousness since acquaintance is naturalistically suspect or even mysterious. I shall examine Sam Coleman’s attempt to dispel this worry by proposing a naturalistic – although non-representationalist – account of acquaintance. According to Coleman, we are acquainted with mental contents in having ‘quotational’ higher-order thoughts (QHOTs) about them, in which the contents are embedded and thus quoted. While Coleman’s model, as I will show, avoids the main pitfalls of representationalism, I will argue that it falls short of accounting for the intimacy of inner awareness. My argument is inspired by Levine’s critique of Balog’s related ‘quotational account’ of phenomenal concepts that, according to Levine, fails to explain the ‘cognitive presence’ of phenomenal states which some of our phenomenal concepts afford us. I’ll argue that a related objection applies to Coleman’s model, despite significant differences between the two accounts. I’ll conclude that the QHOT model isn’t suitable for modelling acquaintance and consider the prospects of a non-reductive approach to acquaintance.

25.3.2022
11:00

Mgr. Ivo Dragoun, Ph.D. 

(University of Sussex)

How to be a metaphysically free agent

The thesis of the universal causal determinism is often taken to imply that we are but a conscious machine whose every action has been necessitated by its causal history. The thesis also implies that our intimate acquaintance with choosing freely among alternatives is a mere illusion. These two related implications come with some rather disconcerting psychological baggage as they strike at the very heart of what it means to be an autonomous agent in charge of one`s own life. Thus, any plausible account of free action that aspires to be attractive must not only exhibit the usual theoretical virtues but also be psychologically robust enough to help with the baggage. The aim of this presentation is to present such an account: it will be shown that there is a philosophically and psychologically satisfactory way of thinking of ourselves as acting freely despite the truth of the thesis and the associated implications.

1.4.2022
od 9:30 
Howard Hotson (Oxford University)

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Oren Ackermann (Arial University)

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Vojtěch Kaše (Department of Philosophy, UWB)

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Ondřej Stulík (Department of Politics and IR, UWB)

LECTURES:

09:30 – Howard Hotson (Oxford University), Digital Scholarship @ Oxford: Convergence in Theory and Practice

11:00 – Oren Ackermann (Arial University), The secret of the archaeological sediments as a human and natural archive

 

SEMINAR (in Czech):

13:30 – Vojtěch Kaše (Department of Philosophy, UWB), Division of labor, specialization and diversity in the ancient Roman cities: A quantitative approach to Latin epigraphy

14:30 – Ondřej Stulík (Department of Politics and IR, UWB), Working with natural language and equivalences to define extremism

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Více informací na https://ccs.zcu.cz/spring-2022

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Jak přednášky tak semináře probíhají v hybridním režimu: v kavárně Kulturka či přes zoom https://cesnet.zoom.us/j/93139477086)

8.4.2022
11:00

PhDr. Zuzana Parusniková, CSc., DSc. (FLÚ AV ČR)

Karl Popper: Philosophy and Science

Karl Popper is one of the few philosophers of science who is well-known to scientists and respected by them. Apart from the direct influence of his views on science it is his methodology that most appeals to scientists. His methodological principle of criticism is the core of a dynamic epistemology, requiring an adventurous spirit and expressing the high-risk nature of the cognitive process. Via the falsification of proposed hypotheses, the positive role of erring is exploited to further the discovery of new problems, leading to the growth of knowledge. Although scientists appreciate Popper´s appeal to criticism as the engine which drives scientific progress they may be wary of the radical implications of the falsificationist imperative, especially of Popper’s total dismissal of any supporting evidence This stands against the deeply ingrained conviction held by both science and traditional epistemology, requiring that a theory be empirically confirmed. Despite various criticisms of his imperative of falsification I claim that Popper proposes an original model of rationality rid of all justificationist ingredients. In this challenging philosophical vision Popper defines reason in negative terms, as an agent of destruction of knowledge claims, and views all knowledge as conjectural, hypothetical and provisional.

22.4.2022
11:00
doc. Mgr. Petr Dvořák, Ph.D. (CMTF UP)

The concepts of emergence

The lecture explores a particular contemporary discussion within analytic philosophy (both philosophy of science and metaphysics), that on emergence. Its aim is to shed some light on different concepts of emergence (weak and strong, epistemic and metaphysical), the arguments in favor of them and the purported instances put forth to justify them. It also tackles the issue to what extent and in what sense is reduction compatible with these kinds of emergence. 

15.4.2022
11:00

Velikonoce

6.5.2022
od 11:00

Adéla Sobotková (Aarhus University)

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Dalibor Fiala  (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UWB)

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Ladislav Šmejda (Department of Anthropology, UWB)

LECTURE:

11:00 – Adéla Sobotková (Aarhus University), Dodging the CRAPL: The Challenges of Doing Digital Research in the Humanities

SEMINAR (in Czech):

13:30 – Dalibor Fiala  (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UWB), Modern Informetric Methods for the Evaluation of Scientific Research

14:30 – Ladislav Šmejda (Department of Anthropology, UWB), Gritty in the City: Moral Geography of the Urban Environment

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Více informací na https://ccs.zcu.cz/spring-2022

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Jak přednášky tak semináře probíhají v hybridním režimu: v kavárně Kulturka či přes zoom https://cesnet.zoom.us/j/93139477086)

13.5.2022
11:00
Mgr. Adéla Sommerová, Mgr. Vojtěch Bernacik

Doktorandi 1 a 2. ročníku FDVT

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